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By Duane W. Roller

Few personalities from classical antiquity are extra famous--yet extra poorly understood--than Cleopatra VII, queen of Egypt. during this significant biography, Duane curler unearths that Cleopatra was once in reality a realized and visionary chief whose overarching target was once continuously the protection of her dynasty and nation.
Roller's authoritative account is the 1st to be dependent exclusively on basic fabrics from the Greco-Roman interval: literary assets, Egyptian files (Cleopatra's personal writings), and representations in paintings and coinage produced whereas she was once alive. His compelling portrait of the queen illuminates her prowess as a royal administrator who controlled a wide and various state extending from Asia Minor to the inner of Egypt, as a naval commander who led her personal fleet in conflict, and as a student and supporter of the humanities. Even her amorous affairs with Julius Caesar and Marcus Antonius--the resource of her acceptance as a ideal seductress who drove males to their doom--were rigorously crafted kingdom regulations: she selected those companions to insure the procreation of successors who will be beneficial of her distinct dynasty. That Cleopatra finally misplaced to her Roman competitors, curler contends, certainly not diminishes her abilities.

"Roller tells his story easily and accessibly....The ensuing portrait is that of a fancy, many-sided determine, a powerful Hellenistic ruler who may perhaps stream the tillers of strength as skillfully as any guy, and one some distance and nobly faraway from the 'constructed icon' of well known imagination."
--The ny occasions publication Review

"A wealthy account of overdue Ptolemaic culture."
--The New Yorker

"Offers a very good landscape of the society and tradition of overdue Ptolemaic Egypt, with brilliant sketches of the (remarkably energetic) highbrow lifetime of Cleopatra's Alexandria and the structural instabilities of the overdue Ptolemaic state."
--Times Literary Supplement

"Besides delivering a compelling tale and respiring clean air right into a heretofore two-dimensional sketch from background, Roller's 'Cleopatra' offers an attractive remark at the attitudes nonetheless accepted in the direction of girls who rule."
--Christian technology Monitor

"Compulsively readable."

"A definitive account of a queen of exceptional strength."
--Publishers Weekly

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In addition, the resource is the notoriously unreliable Scriptores Historiae Augustae, and the knowledge may possibly only be a misunderstood conflation of earlier data,34 however it will be completely moderate for the recognized queen of Palmyra to think a few kinship along with her Ptolemaic predecessor, demonstrating the facility that Cleopatra VII nonetheless wielded three hundred years after her reign. Cleopatra transcended the cave in of her ambition. not just was once she the item of worship in Egypt until eventually not less than the fourth century a. d. , she used to be a major position version for the formation of the Roman Empire. For seen purposes she used to be rarely said in any optimistic experience, yet her inspiration of monarchy and her proposal of constructing a strong Greekoriented nation within the jap Mediterranean helped be sure Roman coverage for hundreds of years. Her territory will be a part of Rome—not separated from it—but Roman sensitivity to neighborhood practices, use of the Greek language, and the community of allied kings all have been continuations of the queen’s guidelines. Even within the urban of Rome her impact may possibly lengthy be visible, in its structure, Egyptian tastes, or even the improved position of the aristocratic girls of the Empire. Cleopatra was once a strength to not be eradicated in simple terms by means of loss of life. 156 Cleopatra Appendices This web page deliberately left clean 1. define of Cleopatra’s existence and profession sixty nine b. c. : Cleopatra is born close to the start of the yr to King Ptolemy XII of Egypt and an unknown mom, moment of (eventually) 5 young ones of the king. fifty eight b. c. : Ptolemy XII flees Egypt; Cleopatra can have followed him a minimum of so far as Athens, probably to Rome. Her elder sister, Berenike IV, usurps the dominion. fifty five b. c. : Ptolemy XII is restored through the Romans, together with M. Antonius, whom Cleopatra meets for the 1st time. Berenike IV is completed through her father. fifty two b. c. : Ptolemy XII writes a will naming his older teenagers, Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII, as joint heirs. fifty one b. c. : Ptolemy XII dies early within the yr; his older teenagers imagine energy. Cleopatra travels to Hermonthis (22 March) to put in the Buchis bull. She eliminates Ptolemy XIII from the joint rule (by 29 August). Sons of Bibulus are killed (perhaps early 50 b. c. ). short alliance is cast among Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV (perhaps 50 b. c. ). 50 b. c. : Ptolemy XIII earnings ascendancy with tips of his father’s ministers (by 27 October). forty nine b. c. : Ptolemy XIII starts his regnal relationship. Gnaeus Pompeius the more youthful involves Alexandria looking support for his father; the joint monarchs ship him ships and troops, yet develop into more and more estranged throughout the yr. Cleopatra flees to the Thebaid (perhaps early forty eight b. c. ). forty eight b. c. : Cleopatra leaves Egypt for Syria and increases a military. Julius Caesar defeats the elder Pompeius at Pharsalos (9 August). Pompeius arrives in Egypt and is killed via these round Ptolemy XIII. Caesar arrives thereafter and takes up place of abode in Alexandria. Cleopatra returns from Syria. Caesar forces a reconciliation among the monarchs, and makes the 2 more youthful siblings (Ptolemy XIV and Arsinoë IV) rulers of Cyprus.

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